1. Main Artillery Directorate optical factory (prior to 1926), Podolsk;
Podolsk optical factory (1926-1928) ;
Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 19 (1928-1936), Pavshino/Krasnogorsk;
Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 69 (after 1936), Krasnogorsk/Novosiborsk (starting in late 1941).
In 1917 The Main Artillery directorate optical factory was moved from Petrograd to Podolsk, Moscow region, and was temporary placed in the territory of the Podolsk mechanical factory (former Singer sewing machine factory). In 1928 it was included into the newly created optical factory in Pavshino, Moscow region (Krasnogorsk starting in the early 1930's).
The factory was renamed several times between the 1920's-1940's and was the main manufacturer during the prewar period. It produced all binoculars models except for the 4x45, also it produced PE sniper scopes. The B-6 6x30 modification was created on the base of the model, produced by this factory, since 1931. In the 1930's this factory also produced so called "civil" binoculars, they were marked without the use of a hammer and sickle and did not have a range-finding graticule.
In 1941 the factory was evacuated to Novosibirsk and stopped 6x30 and 8x30 binocular production, until 1945 it still produced the 7x50 model.
1.1. Main Artillery Directorate optical factory markings
1.2. Podolsk optical factory markings
1.3. Factory of Precise Mechanics No.19 (pre to mid 1932 marking)
"B-6" pattern binoculars.
1.4. Factory of Precise Mechanics No.19 (post mid-1932 to 1936 marking)
*1932 binoculars still had a "snake skin" rubber finish, similar to earlier binoculars, later binoculars used a different pattern
1.5. Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 69 (post 1936 marking)
1.5. Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 69 (1941 to early 1942, without the year of production)
1.6. Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 69, civil binoculars marking, 1932
1.7. Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 69 civil binoculars marking, starting in 1934
(markings inside the triangle can be different). Same style markings were also used on civil 8x40 binoculars.
8x30 model (B-3 modification)
2.1. Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 69 (1938-1940)
2.2. Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 69 (1941 to early 1942, without the year of production)
8x40 model (B-2 modification)
The design of this model is based on the "Delactis" 8x40 binoculars, created by Carl Zeiss.
Production by factory No. 19 (later No. 69) started in 1932 and ended in 1941. Production of military binoculars ended in 1938, afterwards, only the civil model were produced (the pattern 1.7 marking was used). Earliest 1932 binoculars were marked using the 1.3 pattern.
3.1. Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 19 (1938-1940)
The 7x50 model is considered to be naval binoculars. However, the Soviets produced two modifications, one with a range-finding graticule illumination block, the other without it. The model without illumination was considered to be "anti-aircraft".
Production started in the mid 1930's. The binoculars had the same rubber finish and markings pattern as other models from the same period. After the factory was evacuated to Novosibirsk in late 1941, and production of 8x30 and 6x30 models stopped in early 1942, the 7x50 remained the only model which was produced by this factory.
During 1942-1943 the factory produced binoculars with a simplified body finish, binoculars were painted with gray paint with a green tint. In 1944 the factory switched to a different type of the finish, which was similar to finish used on some German binoculars. In 1942-193 the factory did not engrave the production year, binoculars were marked only with the factory logo and serial number. Starting with the 1944 production the year marking was used again.
4.1. Factory of Precise Mechanics No. 69 markings on 1945 7x50 binoculars.
Model without illumination
Model with illumination block
2."Bolshevik" optical factory, Leningrad (prior to 1930);
Optical-mechanical factory, Leningrad (1930-1935) ;
The "Bolshevik" factory tracks its history to the Obukhov factory (in St. Petersburg), which was the first factory in the Russian Empire (that was not a branch of a foreign manufacturer) which started the production of binoculars. The first binoculars were manufactured in 1905. In 1922 the Obukhov factory was renamed the "Bolshevik" factory, first post revolution binoculars were manufactured there in 1925.
In 1930 the optics manufacturing facilities from the Bolshevik factory were moved to the Leningrad Optical-mechanical factory (LOMZ), which continued binoculars production until 1935. LOMZ mainly produced the 6x30 model (different from later B-6 model), and 8x40, 7x50, 4x50 models in much lower quantities.
LOMZ also produced the so called "civil" binoculars that did not have a range-finding graticue, they were marked without the use of a hammer and sickle.
Both of "Bolshevik" and LOMZ 6x30 binoculars had specific construction of the objectives with easily detachable caps, which allowed for the collimating of binoculars in the field. This design was used in the earlier Obukhov factory imperial period binoculars.
5.1. 6x30 binoculars made by the Bolshevik factory
5.2. 6x30 binoculars made by the LOMZ factory, military issue
5.3. 6x30 binoculars made by the LOMZ factory, civil issue
The so called "Galilean" binoculars do not have a prism in their construction. Because of the high percentage of light transmission, compared with Porro prism binoculars, this model was considered to be "Naval night binoculars".
6.1. 4x50 binoculars made by LOMZ factory
3. State optical factory (GOZ), Leningrad (prior to 1931);
State optical-mechanical factory (GOMZ), Leningrad (after 1931) ;
This factory started binocular production in the mid 1920's with it's own design, the 6x30 "A.K. model". It is extremely rare, only a few examples are known in private collections (currently I do not have permission to post pictures of the "A.K. model"). Starting in 1928, production switched to new "type G" model, starting in 1930 the name was changed to "B-1" and construction was updated in some aspects. In 1935 eyepiece assemblies were redesigned. Production of "B-1" model stopped in 1936. In 1940 GOMZ started production of the standardized "B-6" model, but this will be covered in another page.
1932-1936 production binoculars can have "У.В.П. 6x30", "А.У.6x30", "6x30", "ГОМЗ. им. О.Г.П.У. 6x30" abbreviations on the right plate, the first two are military order binoculars with a rangefinding graticule, the last two are civil order binoculars.
6x30 model (B-1 model)
7.1. 6x30 "B-1" binoculars, made by the GOMZ factory. Early eyepiece pattern.
Military pattern marking on the right plate.
Civil pattern marking on the right plate
7.2. 6x30 "B-1" binoculars made by the GOMZ factory. Late eyepiece pattern.
Civil pattern marking on the right plate.